ostensibly – näiliselt
hitherto – tänini
inevitability – paratamatus
revolve-keerlema, pöörlema, tiirlema
controversy-poleemika, sõnasõda (vastuolulisus)
prevailing-valitsev, valdav, ülekaalus
repudiate-ümber lükkama, hülgama, keelduma
validity-kehtivus, paikapidavus, põhjendatus
validity-piirang, kitsendus, takistus
derive-tuletama, põlvnema, ammutama
quarrel-jagelema, kaklema, tülitsema
take for granted-iseenesestmõistetav
inclinations – kalduvused
merit-väärtus, teene, voorus, omadus
succumb-alistuma, hukkuma, varisema
regime-režiim, kord, riigikord
surmises-eeldama, oletama, aimama
contrived – välja arendatud, leiutama, kombineerima, hakkama saama
gradations-gradatsioonid, astmed, järgusus, astmestik
converge and diverge-ühtlustavad ja lahknevad
endeavoring-püüdlik, vaevarikas, usin, hoolikas
resentment-pahameel, vimm, rahuolematus
coutring-peibutama, meelitama, kosima, õnnetust kaela kutsuma
- All the verities involved by religion, authority, tradition, style, are thrown into question, and the writer or artist is no longer able to estimate the response of his audience to the symbols and references with which he works.
- In the past such a state of affairs has usually resolved itself into a motionless Alexandrianism, an academicism in which the really important issues are left untouched because they involve controversy.
- In seeking to go beyond Alexandrianism, a part of Western bourgeois society has produced something unheard of heretofore:-avantgarde culture. A superior consciousness of history-more precisely,
the appearance of a new kind of criticism of society,
an historical criticism-made this possible.
- New perspectives, becoming a part of the advanced intellectual conscience of the fifth and sixth decades of the nineteenth century, soon were absorbed by artists and poets.
- It was no accident, that the birth of the avant-garde coincided
chronologically-and geographically, too-with the first bold
development of scientific revolutionary thought in Europe.
- Emigration from the markets of capitalism, ostensibly, at least, although, as will be shown later, the avant-garde remained attached to bourgeois society precisely because it needed its money.
- The true and most important function of the avant-garde was not to “experiment,” but to find a path along which it would be possible to keep culture moving in the midst of ideological confusion and violence.
- The avant-garde poet or artist sought to maintain the high level of his art by both narrowing and raising it to the expression of an absolute in which all relativities and contradictions would be either resolved or beside the point.
- “Art for art’s sake” and “pure poetry” appear, and subject matter or eontent becomes something to be avoided like a plague.
- Content is to be dissolved so completely ‘into form that the work of art or literature cannot be reduced in whole or in part to anything not itself.
- The very values in the name of which he invokes the absolute are relative values, the values of aesthetics.
- And so he turns out to be imitating, not God-and here I use “imitate” in its Aristotelian sense-but the disciplines and processes of art and literature themselves. This is the genesis of the “abstract.”
- the expression mattering more than what is
- That avant-garde culture is the imitation of imitating-the fact itself-calls for neither approval nor disapproval. It is true that this culture contains within itself some of the very Alexandrianism it seeks to overcome. But there is one most important difference: the avant-garde moves, while Alexandrianism stands still. And this, precisely, is what justifies the avant-garde’s methods and makes them necessary.
- Kitsch: popular, commercial art and literature with their chromeotypes, magazine covers, illustrations, ads, slick and pulp fiction, comics, Tin Pan Alley music, tap dancing, Hollywood movies, etc.
- Kitsch is a product of the industrial revolution which urbanized the masses of Western Europe and America and established what is called universal literacy.
- The peasants who settled in the cities as proletariat and petty bourgeois learned to read and write for the sake of efficiency, but they did not win the leisure and comfort necessary for the enjoyment of the city’s traditional culture.
- Kitsch is vicarious
experience and faked sensations. Kitsch changes according to
style, but remains always the same. Kitsch pretends to
demand nothing of its customers except their money-not
even their time.
- The methods of industrialism displace the handicrafts.
- Kitsch has not been confined to the cities in which it was born, but has Bowed out over the countryside, wiping out folk culture.
- Another mass product of Western industrialism, it has gone on a triumphal tour of the world, crowding out and defacing native cultures in one colonial
country after another, so that it is now by way of becoming a universal culture, the first universal culture ever beheld.
- All values are human values, relative values, in art as well as elsewhere. Yet there does seem to have been more or less of a general agreement among the cultivated of mankind over the ages as to what is good art and what bad. Taste has varied, but not beyond certain limits; contemporary connoisseurs agree with the eighteenth-century Japanese that Hokusai was one of the greatest artists of his time; we even agree with the ancient Egyptians that Third and Fourth Dynasty art was the most worthy of being selected as their paragon by those who came after. We may have come to prefer Giotto to Raphael, but we still do not deny that Raphael was one of the best painters of his time. There has been an agreement then, and this agreement rests, I believe, on a fairly constant distinction made between those values only to be found in art and the
values which can be found elsewhere. Kitsch, by virtue of a rationalized technique that draws on science and industry, has erased this distinction in practice.
- Kitsch on selgelt arusaadav, mõistetav ja ilma suuremate tagamõteteta, ei nõua vaatajalt loomingulisust, vastupidiselt n-ö süvakunstile.
- Ultimately, it can be said that the cultivated spectator derives the same values from Picasso that the peasant gets from Repin, since what the latter enjoys in Repin is somehow art too, on however lower scale, and he is sent to look at pictures by the same instincts that send the cultivated spectator.
- They are not immediately or externally present in Picasso’s painting, but must be projected into it by the spectator sensitive enough to react sufficiently to plastic qualities. They belong to the “reflected” effect. In Repin, on the other hand, the “reflected” effect has already been included in the picture, ready for the spectator’s unreflective enjoyment.
- Where Picasso paints cause, Repin paints effect
- There has always been on one side the minority of the powerful-and therefore the cultivated-and on the other the great mass of the exploited and poor-and therefore the ignorant. Formal culture has always belonged to the first, while the last have had to content themselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch.
- in the Middle Ages – He needed not to be philosopher, or visionary, but simply artificer. As long as there was general agreement as to what were the worthiest subjects for art, the artist was relieved of the necessity to be original and inventive in his “matter” and could devote all his energy to formal problems.
- He needed not to be philosopher, or visionary, but simply artificer. As long as there was general agreement as to what were the worthiest subjects for art, the artist was relieved of the necessity to be original and inventive in his “matter” and could devote all his energy to formal problems. And only with Rembrandt do “lonely” artists begin to appear, lonely in their art.
- Only when he becomes dissatisfied with the social order they administer does he begin to criticize their culture. Then the plebeian finds courage for the first time to voice his opinions openly. Every man, from the Tammany alderman to the Austrian housepainter, finds that he is entitled to his opinion.
- Most often this resentment toward culture is to be found where the dissatisfaction with society is a reactionary dissatisfaction which expresses itself in revivalism and puritanism, and latest of all, in fascism.
- the peasant soon finds that the necessity of wonting hard all day for his living and the rude, uncomfortable circumstances in which he lives do not allow him enough leisure, energy and comfort to train for the enjoyment of Picasso. This ‘leeds, after all, a considerable amount of “conditioning.”
- arian regimes seek to ingratiate themselves with their subjects. Since these regimes cannot raise the cultural level of the masses-even if they wanted to-by anything short of a surrender to international socialism, they will flatter the masses by bringing all culture down to their level.
- As a matter of fact, the main trouble with avant-garde art and literature, from the point of view of fascists and Stalinists, is not that they are too critical, but that they are too “innocent,” that it is too difficult to inject effective propaganda into them, that kitsch is more pliable to this end.
- At any rate Mussolini seems to have realized lately that it would be more useful to him to please the cultural tastes of the Italian masses than those of their masters.
- Capitalism in decline finds that whatever of quality it is still capable of producing becomes almost invariably a threat to its own existence.
Avant-garde nõuab haridustaset, et seda mõista
mõttelaad: “õige nauding on läbi vaeva nägemise, distsipliini”